## The Definitive History of Calculators

From ancient Greece to modern Texas Instruments calculators, we dive into the fun and nerdy history of Calculators!

I. Introduction
• Brief overview of the history of calculators
• II. The Abacus
• Origins of the abacus
• How the abacus was used
• III. The Slide Rule
• Invention of the slide rule
• How the slide rule was used
• IV. The Mechanical Calculator
• Early mechanical calculator designs
• The first commercially successful mechanical calculator
• V. The Electronic Calculator
• Development of the first electronic calculator
• The rise of handheld electronic calculators
• VI. The Graphing Calculator
• Introduction of the first graphing calculator
• The role of graphing calculators in education
• VII. The Modern Calculator
• The evolution of calculator design
• VIII. Conclusion
• Recap of the history of calculators
• The impact of calculators on society and technology
• ## The Fascinating History of Calculators

### Introduction

Calculators are such an integral part of our daily lives, it's hard to imagine a world without them. But where did these handy devices come from? Join us on a journey through the history of calculators, from ancient times to the present day.

### Ancient Calculators

Calculators have a long and fascinating history that dates back to ancient times. The oldest known calculating device is the abacus, which was used by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. The abacus is a simple frame with beads that can be moved up and down to represent different numbers. By sliding the beads around, people could perform basic math operations like addition and subtraction.
• Abacus: The abacus is an ancient calculating tool that was used in the Near East, Asia, and Europe. It consists of a frame with rods on which beads are moved to represent numbers. The abacus is still used today in some parts of the world.
• Napier's Bones: Invented by John Napier in the early 17th century, Napier's Bones are a set of rods that could be used to perform multiplication and division.
• ### The Slide Rule

• Slide rule: A slide rule calculator is a mechanical calculating device that was commonly used before the advent of electronic calculators. It consists of a pair of logarithmic scales, one fixed and one movable, that can be used to perform mathematical calculations such as multiplication, division, and square root. The user would align the scales to the numbers they wanted to perform calculations on, and then use the scales to perform the necessary operations. The slide rule was an important tool in science and engineering, and it was widely used in these fields until the 1970s, when electronic calculators became widely available.
• ### The First Mechanical Calculators

In the 17th century, the first mechanical calculators were invented. These early machines were large, complex, and expensive, and they could only perform basic arithmetic operations. One of the most famous mechanical calculators was the Pascaline, which was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642. The Pascaline used a system of gears and wheels to perform calculations, and it could only handle basic addition and subtraction.

### The First Electronic Calculators

In the early 20th century, the first electronic calculators were developed. These early machines used vacuum tubes to perform calculations, and they were much faster and more powerful than mechanical calculators. The first electronic calculator was the Atanasoff-Berry Computer, which was developed in 1937. However, electronic calculators didn't become widely available until the 1970s, when affordable models were introduced.
• The ANITA Mark I: The first electronic calculator was created in 1961 by British engineer Tom Kilburn. It was called the ANITA Mark I (Automatic Non-Inverting Amplifying Transistor Analogue Computer Mark I). The ANITA Mark I was huge, weighing in at over a ton, and it was only able to perform simple arithmetic.
• ### The First Handheld Calculators

The first handheld calculators were introduced in the 1970s, and they quickly became popular because of their portability and ease of use. These early calculators were fairly basic, and they could only perform basic math operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. However, as technology advanced, handheld calculators
• Busicom LE-120A: The first handheld calculator was the Busicom LE-120A, released in 1971. It was quite expensive at the time, costing around \$400 (equivalent to about \$2500 today).
• • Sharp EL-8: The first calculator to use an LCD screen was the Sharp EL-8, released in 1973.
• ## Calculators: The modern era

### Pocket Calculators

• Sinclair Executive: The first pocket calculator was the Sinclair Executive, released in 1972. It was small and portable, making it easy to carry around.
• ### Scientific Calculators

• Hewlett-Packard HP-9100A: The first scientific calculator was the Hewlett-Packard HP-9100A, released in 1968.
• ### Graphing Calculators

• TI-81: The first graphing calculator was the TI-81, released in 1990. It revolutionized the way math was taught in schools and is still a popular choice for students today.
• Here are five popular graphing calculators that are widely used today:
• Texas Instruments TI-84 Plus CE: This calculator is widely used in high school and college classrooms for math and science courses. It has a high-resolution color display, is lightweight and portable, and has a variety of advanced graphing capabilities.
• Casio fx-9860GII: This calculator is popular in schools and colleges for its fast processing speed and ability to handle complex calculations. It has a large, high-resolution display and a variety of graphing capabilities.
• HP Prime G3: This calculator is popular in high school and college classrooms for its advanced graphing capabilities and intuitive interface. It has a large, full-color touch screen display and a variety of advanced math and science functions.
• TI-Nspire CX: This calculator is popular in high school and college classrooms for its advanced graphing capabilities and ability to handle complex calculations. It has a full-color display and can handle a variety of math and science functions.
• Casio fx-CG50: This calculator is popular in high school and college classrooms for its advanced graphing capabilities and ability to handle complex calculations. It has a high-resolution color display and can handle a variety of math and science functions.